3 edition of An introduction to oil spill physical and chemical processes and information management found in the catalog.
An introduction to oil spill physical and chemical processes and information management
by Hazardous Materials Response and Assessment Division, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Seattle, Wash
Written in English
Includes bibliographical references.
|Statement||prepared by Hazardous Materials Response and Assessment Division, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.|
|Contributions||California. Office of Oil Spill Prevention and Response., United States. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Hazardous Materials Response and Assessment Division.|
|LC Classifications||TD427.P4 I57 1991|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||1 v. (various pagings) :|
1 INTRODUCTION Petroleum products that enter the marine environ- a very powerful tool for management assessment af-ter an oil spill accident, particularly for determining through physical-chemical processes. Oil spills in coastal zones: Environmental . Finding 1. From to , approximately 17 percent of the petroleum products transported over U.S. waters were heavy oils and heavy-oil products, such as residual fuel oils, coke, and asphalt. Approximately 44 percent was moved by barge and 56 percent by tanker. Finding 2. .
It describes the significant advances made over the last few years in the development of mathematical methods to predict and forecast the dispersion of oil spills. Several chapters describe the physical and chemical processes that take place in oil spills including environmental conditions affecting oil . War, sabotage or deliberate spills Oil Spill Response Overview Handbook 3 Safety During an oil spill, responders may be exposed to hazards from the spilt oil: Dangerous gas levels. Some oils will produce high levels of H₂S. This is a particularly dangerous gas and should be .
Focuses on response phase monitoring for maritime spills. Oil spills can be difficult to manage, with reporting frequently delayed. Too often, by the time responders arrive at the scene, the slick has moved, dissolved, dispersed or sunk. This Oil Spill Monitoring Handbook provides practical advice on what information is likely required following the accidental release of oil or other Cited by: 3. Oil has a physical state (liquid) and biodegradable components: Aqueous (e.g., marine) Some natural attenuation processes may reduce the amount of oil. This is due to a combination of evaporation, dissolution, and biodegradation of oil spill.
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Standard Handbook Oil Spill Environmental Forensics: Fingerprinting and Source Identification, Second Edition, provides users with the latest information on the tools and methods that have become popular over the past ten years.
The book presents practitioners with the latest environmental forensics techniques and best practices for quickly identifying the sources of spills, how to form an. spill is more likely a good example of oil sedimentation as a result of oil- particle interaction rather than natural dispersion.
Natural dispersion is dependent on both the oil properties and the Author: Merv Fingas. Oil spill identification is an environmental forensic tool to compare source and spill samples from oil (product) spills by means of GC-FID and GC–MS.
The method described here is based on the CEN guideline for oil spill identification of waterborne petroleum and petroleum products. Good sampling procedures are an essential part of the method. Oil dispersants (chemical agents such as surfactants, solvents, and other compounds) are used to reduce the effect of oil spills by changing the chemical and physical properties of the oil.
By enhancing the amount of oil that physically mixes into the water, dispersants can reduce the potential that a surface slick will contaminate shoreline habitats. Marine oil spills include crude oil, refined petroleum products (gasoline, diesel and other by-products), heavier fuels (bunker fuel) and any oily white refuse or waste oil (API, ).
The severity of the impact of an oil spill depends on the quantity of the oil and its chemical and physical. Introduction. Oil spills are regrettably common around the world: the Amoco Cadiz in France in ; the Exxon Valdez in Alaska in ; the ‘Gulf War’ in Kuwait in ; the Erica in France in ; the Aegean Sea in Galicia, Spain, in ; and the Prestige in Spain and France inwhich are some of the most well-known oil spills.
Process Safety Progress, 26 (): –; James A. Klein and Bruce K. Vaughen. Process Safety: Key Concepts and Practical Approaches (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, ). In NovemberRex Tillerson, Chairman and CEO of ExxonMobil, testified before the National Commission on the disastrous BP Deepwater oil spill.
Environmental contaminants of potential concern. Approximately million gallons of crude oil were released as a result of the DWH oil spill and an estimated million gallons of chemical dispersants were used in response efforts [16, 17].Key air pollutants associated with the DWH oil spill include hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), or aerosol particles, ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur Cited by: Site investigation is often thought of as a discrete step in the spill response process, as presented in the introduction to this manual and as diagrammed in Exhibits and In reality, however,a site investigation is a continuous activity that starts with receipt of theFile Size: KB.
Title: Management of Spills 1 Management of Spills Leaks. Two areas of focus ; Prevention Taking steps to minimize the potential for a spill and properly maintaining equipment to eliminate leaks. Intervention Reporting and responding properly to a spill once it occurs.
2 Prevention of Spills and Leaks. Inspection and replacement of hydraulic. Includes case studies examining and analyzing spills, such as Tasman Spirit oil spill on the Karachi Coast, and provides lessons to prevent these in the future Author Bios Merv Fingas has 40 years of experience in oil and chemical spill research.
The spill had detrimental physical, chemical, and biological effects throughout ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill being the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the United States, makes it a very important event in US history.
Oil spill, leakage of petroleum onto the surface of a large body of water. Oceanic oil spills became a major environmental problem in the s, chiefly as a result of intensified petroleum exploration and production on continental shelves and the use of supertankers capable of transporting more thanmetric tons of oil.
Spectacular oil spills from wrecked or damaged supertankers are. The various types of oil differ in how they weather—that is, how they chemically or physically change when exposed to the elements.
The figure at right shows the weathering processes affecting oil spills, with the referenced weathering terminology explained below. Adsorption (sedimentation): The process by which one substance is attracted to and adheres to the surface of.
Oil Spill Science and Technology, Second Edition, delivers a multi-contributed view on the entire chain of oil-spill related topics from oil properties and behaviors, to remote sensing through the management side of contingency planning and communicating oil spill risk perceptions.
Completely new case studies are included with special attention to the Deepwater Horizon event, covering the. Book Description. Oil Spill Science and Technology, Second Edition, delivers a multi-contributed view on the entire chain of oil-spill related topics from oil properties and behaviors, to remote sensing through the management side of contingency planning and communicating oil spill risk perceptions.
Completely new case studies are included with special attention to the Deepwater Horizon event. An oil spill is the accidental release of liquid hydrocarbons to the environment as crude oil or a petroleum product.
Experts in coastal geosciences play a key role in understanding the processes. environment surrounding an oil spill. All types of oil share chemical and physical properties that produce similar effects on the environment. In some cases, non-petroleum oil spills can produce more harmful effects than petroleum oil spills.
Chapter five discusses in greater detail how oil spills impact wildlife. Sensitivity of Aquatic Habitats. Explaining the chemistry of an oil spill. Oil tanker spills compound the danger to the marine food chain by crude released into the sea in normal operations and seepage from the earth. Steps are now being taken to reduce the threat.
The International Maritime Organisation is taking the initiative in monitoring. predictive capability is probably better for oil spills than for many other types of marine pollutant.
The range of biological impacts after an oil spill can encompass: • Physical and chemical alteration of natural habitats, e.g. resulting from oil incorporation into sediments; • Physical File Size: 28KB.
The Oil Spill Monitoring Handbook completely updates the Australian Maritime Safety Authority’s edition of the same name, taking into account the latest scientific advances in physical, chemical and biological monitoring, many of which have evolved as a consequence of major oil spill disasters in the last decade.
It includes sections on.Physical properties of Oil Specific Gravity-The specific gravity of a substance is a comparison of its density to that of water.
Less than SG floats on water Greater than SG sinks in water Majority of oils “float” Great spill cleanup significance In general, specific gravity of spilled oil will.An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially the marine ecosystem, due to human activity, and is a form of term is usually given to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters, but spills may also occur on spills may be due to releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling.